The civilization that I chose to write about is Mesopotamia. I believe that their natural environment allowed for the best growth in a complex society. With its rich rivers’ the Tigris and Euphrates, it allowed them to have fertile land, which allowed for crops to be abundant. Also, this allowed their civilization to stay in one place and set up permanent settlements. Those early settlements then showed signs of early city designs such as concentrations of population, monumental architecture, communication, division of labor, and different social and economic classes. The people of Mesopotamia were responsible for many “firsts” in human history. They built the first cities in the world; came up with one of the earliest forms of writing; enacted the first comprehensive legal code; and are credited with the invention of the wheel and the chariot. The most famous achievement of the Sumerian civilization of Mesopotamia is the invention of the cuneiform script around 3400 BC. Cuneiform is a Latin term meaning “wedge-shaped”.
Sumerian writing developed from pictograms but grew in sophistication and ultimately became a full-fledged writing system that could be used for creating pieces of literature as well as prayers and laws. Though it is not the oldest example of writing, cuneiform script is considered a great milestone in human history. Also, during the years 2047 to 2030 B.C, Ur-Nammu was the Sumerian King wo was famous for his law code the Ur-Nammu. But the most famous one of the individuals who established law was Hammurabi (r.1792 BC to 1750BC). It placed greater emphasis on the physical punishment for the perpetrator. It contained 300 laws that discuss a wide range of subject, including homicide, assault, divorce, debt, adoption, tradesman fees, and even disputes regarding the brewing of beer. Also, the one that is most important to me, it established the presumption of innocence, one that is considered innocent unless proven guilty.
I think that Hammurabi is the most interesting person of this time. The visionary ability that he had to have in order to keep this reign in order, is amazing. He had the foresight to bring all of Babylon under rule, and then had these amazing set of laws that we still use today. For a primitive society (based off our current society standing) they operated above what one would assume a civilization during that time would operate.
2. The civilization of ancient Egypt was indebted to the Nile River and its dependable seasonal flooding. The river’s predictability and fertile soil allowed the Egyptians to build an empire on the basis of great agricultural wealth. Egyptians are credited as being one of the first groups of people to practice agriculture on a large scale. Their farming practices allowed them to grow staple food crops, espaecially grains such as wheat and barley and industrial crops such as flax and papyrus. The ancient Egyptians used the distinctive script known today as hieroglyphs.Hieroglyphs were written on papyrus, carved in stone on tomb and temple walls, used to decorate many objects of cultic and daily life use. Anicent Egyptian art forms are characterized by regularity and detailed depiction of gods, human beings, heroic battles, and nature. Symbolism played an important role in establishing a sense of order this ranged from the pharaoh’s regalia (symbolizing power to maintain order) to the individual symbols of Egyptian gods and goddesses. Animals were also highly symbolic figures in Egyptian art. A high proportion of the surviving works were designed and made to provide peace and assistance to the deceased in the afterlife.Religion was central to ancient Egyptian culture. The ancient Egyptians worshipped over 1,400 different gods and goddesses in their shrines, temples, and homes . These deities were the centre of a religion lasting over three thousands years.Throughout much of ancient history Egyptian was polytheistic, meaning it recognized many gods and goddesses, as well as a variety of others divine beings. Not all of them were equal in significance.